When including security controls into a SCADA system design, it is sometimes difficult to separate design
goals from security requirements. The foremost goal for a SCADA system is to provide protection,
automation, and data acquisition. This paper discusses major
vulnerabilities and cybersecurity considerations that require proper analysis when designing and
implementing a secure IEC-61850 standard-based SCADA system within a power substation.
The OT and IT convergence are a reality due to the integrated and complex computing networking and communications taking place within OT
environments. This paper reviews some of the major security challenges facing OT and IT convergence with power utilities, particularly within smart grid (SG) and smart substation environments.